Abstract: Since the implementation of China’s Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), overseas industrial parks, an important embodiment of economic and trade cooperation, have become critical platforms for Chinese enterprises to go global. While a great number of the industrial parks have been constructed overseas, statistical information of these parks is not always available because of difficulties in information access. Such information includes the commencement of park construction, the name of implementing enterprises, etc., which is nevertheless crucial for both public and private investors to formulate a high-quality going-global strategy and to avoid investment risks. To tackle this issue, this study uses network crawling to collect data from official accounts of the BRI International Industrial Park, official websites of their major implementing enterprises, and the database of the Ministry of Commerce, to compile a dataset of China’s overseas industrial parks in BRI from 1992 to 2018. At present, the dataset includes 182 parks, falling onto six categories: agricultural industrial parks, light industrial parks, heavy industrial parks, high-tech parks, logistics cooperative parks and comprehensive industrial parks. This dataset contains such information as the name of the industrial park, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) membership status of its host country, the commencement of their AIIB membership, the country/region/continent located, the development level of the host country, their collaborative Chinese enterprise, the enterprise identification code, their industrial park category, and the commencement of construction. A validation of the data shows an overall consistency of 99.23%. This dataset can be used to predict medium- and long-term prospects for the industrial park development and planning, to support the government departments’ decision-making, or to facilitate the Chinese enterprises’ formulation of go-global strategies, particularly in terms of risk reducing.
Keywords: overseas industrial park; the Belt and Road Initiative; industrial type; Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB)
|Title||Information dataset of China's overseas industrial parks from 1992 to 2018|
|Data Corresponding author||Wu Mingquan (email@example.com)|
|Data authors||Li Humei, Wu Mingquan, Niu Zheng, Li Qi|
|Time range||1992 – 2018|
|Geographical scope||Longitude & latitude: 77°55'12''N – 34°49'48''S, 117°22'12''W – 178°52'12''E; the specific areas include: Asia, Europe, Africa, Oceania, North America and South America; the countries involved include: Algeria, United Arab Emirates, Oman, Egypt, Ethiopia, Pakistan, Brazil, Belarus, Belgium, Poland, Germany, Russia, France, Fiji, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, South Korea, Djibouti, Kyrgyzstan, Cambodia, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Laos, Romania, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mauritania, Myanmar, Mozambique, Mexico, South Africa, Nigeria, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Tanzania, Venezuela, Brunei, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Hungary, Italy, India, Indonesia, Vietnam, and Zambia.|
|Data volume||27 KB, 182 items|
|Data service system||<http://www.sciencedb.cn/dataSet/handle/797>|
|Sources of funding||Strategic Priority Research Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA19030304); Youth Innovation Promotion Association, Chinese Academy of Sciences (2017089).|
|Database composition||The dataset includes an Excel file. The main content includes: AIIB membership status of the host country, commencement of AIIB membership, continent/region/country located, development level of the host country, names of the industrial park, collaborative Chinese enterprises, enterprise identification code, industrial park category, and commencement of construction.|
In 2013, President Xi Jinping proposed the “Silk Road Economic Belt” during a state visit in Kazakhstan, and later, the 21st century “Maritime Silk Road” initiative in a conference at Indonesian parliament. The two as a whole constitute the strategic vision of the “Belt and Road Initiative (BRI)”. This great idea aims to consolidate the cooperation between China and other countries, and to boost mutual economic development along the road, under China’s role as a development pioneer. Indeed, the BRI can not only promote China’s economic development, but also benefits the world economy. As platforms for economic and trade exchanges, overseas industrial parks are important in not only developing the BRI alone but advancing global economic exchanges. In these economic and trade cooperation zones, Chinese enterprises are the main actors, who invest and build industrial parks of high concentration, with complete industrial chains, comprehensive service, and convenient and efficient management models as per the terms of agreements1 reached between China and the host country. AIIB was established to provide strong financial support to the exchange and cooperation among countries along the Belt and Road.
The rapid development of China’s overseas parks has helped to increase a large amount of tax revenue for host countries, to address some local employment problems2, and to promote the prosperity of regional markets and the economic and trade cooperation. Industrial park construction can have great impact on the development of a country or region. There has been no comprehensive statistical data to date.3-8 Existing studies on the parks, however, are largely focused on single parks12-16: some have studied African parks9, some have analyzed the parks in Southeast Asia,10-11. To address the gap, this study comprehensively analyzes the data of industrial parks already constructed or currently under construction, which would support government departments’ unified management of the parks, or help investors better understand the situations.
Chinese enterprises have built a large number of industrial parks across different countries. Among them, some small-scale parks may not even be reported, and others may not be filed with the Ministry of Commerce, which makes the statistical process relatively difficult. In this study, we conducted data collection through web crawler technology, based on the official WeChat accounts of these projects, the websites of the enterprises involved and the database of the Ministry of Commerce of the People’s Republic of China. This paper presents a dataset of industrial parks in the countries along the Belt and Road with a maximal information coverage. While we tried to compile a complete profile for each, information is not always readily accessible.
2.1 Data collection
Using web crawler technology, we obtained a large volume of news report on the construction of the parks. We then carefully read the news content to identify those projects involving Chinese enterprises, while screening out those yet to be started or those only with interest expressed. The information collected from certain official websites was relatively comprehensive, including the Belt and Road Initiative at China.com.cn (http://ydyl.china.com.cn/), Xinhua Silk Road (https://www.imsilkroad.com/), and the information service platform of the CCPIT (China Council for the Promotion of International Trade) Overseas Industrial Park. In addition to these websites, we also included reports of BRI from official WeChat accounts, such as those of The Belt and Road Initiative (一带一路), The Belt and Road Reports (一带一路报道), The Belt and Road Adviser (一带一路高参), and the Belt and Road Energy Cooperation Network. Through the above channels, we obtained information on the parks including project name, country/region located, commencement of construction, collaborative Chinese enterprises, enterprise nature, and so forth.
2.2 Data classification
All data are recorded in an Excel sheet. Based on their operation mode and industrial type, the parks are divided into the following 6 categories:
(1) Agricultural Industrial Parks (AIP)
AIP hosts enterprises mainly of the primary industry, including agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, agricultural sideline production, fishery, and processing industry. These parks are mainly labor-intensive and processing-oriented. Examples include Asia Star Agricultural Industry Cooperation Zone (Kyrgyzstan), Polaris Forestry Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone (Russia), Taiyuan Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Industrial Park (Russia), China-Africa Modern Animal Husbandry Circular Economy Industrial Zone, Tajikistan-China Agricultural Cooperation Demonstration Park and China-Mao (Hongdong) Marine Economic Cooperation Park.
(2) Light Industrial Parks (LIP)
LIP mainly operates in the secondary industry of manufacturing that produces basically light industrial products, such as textiles, foods, and household appliances. Examples include China-UAE Food Industrial Park, Anjiyan Textile Park (Uzbekistan), China-Egypt Mankay Textile Industrial Park, Haier-Ruba Economic Zone, Vietnam-Lingzhong Processing Export Zone and Industrial Zone, Kombolcha Light Industrial Park (Ethiopia), among others.
(3) Heavy Industrial Parks (HIP)
HIP operates in the domain of the secondary heavy industry producing products such as petroleum, electronics, and chemicals, mainly for energy resource processing. Examples include China Jiangling Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone (Algeria), TBEA Green Energy Industrial Park (India), Automotive Industrial Park (Kazakhstan), Sulawesi Nickel Iron Industrial Park (Indonesia), West Kalimantan Aluminum Processing Park (Indonesia), among others.
(4) High-tech Parks (HTP)
HTP serves mainly as a base for high-tech companies that aim to enhance economic and trade cooperation and to deliver cutting-edge high-tech products. Examples include China-Kazakhstan Land Golden High-tech Park, China-Korea Science and Technology Innovation Economic Park, China-Tajikistan Agricultural Industrial Park, China-ASEAN Beidou Science and Technology City, China-Belgium Science and Technology Park, Chelyabinsk Innovation Industrial Park (Russia), and Russian Yuejin High-tech Park.
(5) Logistics Cooperation Parks (LCP)
LCP operates in the business domain of logistics transporting goods across regional and national borders for supporting trade cooperation. Examples include the UAE China-Arab (Fujila) Trade and Logistics Park, Kazakhstan (Almaty) China Trade and Logistics Park, China-Europe International Logistics Industrial Cooperation Park (Lodz, Poland), Vladimir Hongda Logistics Industrial Park (Russia), Bell Mack Trade and Logistics Park (Serbia), among others.
(6) Comprehensive Industrial Parks (MIP)
MIP integrates two or more functions as listed above, and involves multiple industries. Examples include China Mall (Ajman), Hualing Free Industrial Park (Georgia), Saysettha Comprehensive Development Zone (Laos), Huangjing Port Linhai Industrial Park (Malaysia), Colombo Port City (Sri Lanka), Huaxia Happiness Karawang Industrial Park (Indonesia), Pearl River Special Economic Zone (Kenya), among others.
2.3 Data processing
First, names of the industrial parks were extracted from official websites. Then, information was gathered to generate a profile for each park, including the state/region/country located, collaborative Chinese enterprises, and commencement of construction. All parks were then classified according to the main industries within which they operated. The distribution of the parks was summarized in the form of each type per continents. Finally, we identified the AIIB membership of their host country, and checked their membership commencement if any. The commencement of construction of each park was paired and compared with the host country’s AIIB membership status, in a way to construct a correlation between the AIIB and the park construction. The data collection workflow is illustrated in Figure 1.
3.1 Data distribution
Through multiple search engines, we collected information on a total of 182 industrial parks, including 54 agricultural industrial parks, 31 light industrial parks, 21 heavy industrial parks, 13 high-tech parks, 11 logistics cooperation parks and 52 comprehensive industrial parks. The distribution of these parks in each continent is shown in Figure 2. The parks are mainly concentrated in Asia, Europe and Africa. In specific, agricultural industrial parks are mainly located in Europe (up to 28) while Asia has the largest share of light industrial parks (14), and heavy industrial parks (12 out of 21); 7 out of the 13 high-tech parks are located in Europe while 28 out of the 52 comprehensive industrial parks are in Asia.
The distribution diagram indicates that agricultural industry has developed rapidly in Europe, featured by modern agricultural parks integrating multiple functions including agricultural production, science and technology, ecology, sightseeing and so forth. In comparison, the secondary industry remained dominant in Asia, increasingly featured by service-oriented, large-scale, urban complex centering around concepts like apartments, hotels, offices and exhibitions. Most of the industrial parks were built in emerging economies (up tp 81), developing or underdeveloped countries, which reflects how the construction of a park drives a robust development.
3.2 Missing data treatment
Even though we tried to compile a dataset with the most comprehensive details, not all the information was complete. At present, six out of the total 182 entries do not have information disclosed concerning the nature of their implementation enterprises and corresponding enterprise identification codes. The six parks are: China-EU International Logistics Cooperation Park (Lodz, Poland), Bashkovo Wood Processing Park (Russia), Russia Innovative Industrial Park in Chelyabinsk Region, Russia Krasnoyarsk Oriental Wood Industry Liesuo Park, Russia Miha Industrial Park, Moscow (Dubna) High-tech Industrial Cooperation Park. Also, seven have no accessible information about the commencement of the project, namely, Russia Gecheng New North Wood Processing Park, Russia Miha Industrial Park, Russia Yusen Krasnoyarsk Forestry Cooperation Zone, Jinsui Overseas Agricultural Cooperation Zone, Irkutsk New Jima Resource Utilization Park, Sino-Russian Forestry Kansk Industrial Park, and Huajin Mining Economic and Trade Park. Besides, no enterprise identification codes were retrieved for Suifenhe New North Economic and Trade Co., Ltd. (Russia Gecheng New North Wood Processing Park) and Tiantang Group (China Uganda Mbale Industrial Park). To sum up, eight enterprise identification codes are missing.
As it turned out, this dataset recorded basic information about the parks. Originally, we intended to collect more detailed information, including economic and financial indicators, specifically, the number of companies and their output value, but this was made impossible because of the dynamics involved in the process: for some, construction had not yet started, while for others, construction was just completed, with an undetermined number of enterprises involved. Another reason is that still other projects did not have their information disclosed to the public. We are planning to obtain new categories of information to supplement this dataset in the next two years, in a way to facilitate more professional information mining.
3.3 Analysis on the correlation between park construction and AIIB membership
AIIB membership is very important for a state to promote its economic development and regional economic integration. AIIB enables direct and efficient allocation of the deposits collected from countries with high savings rates to the construction of industrial parks, through secured development of the financial markets and the construction of industrial parks. At the same time, more jobs were created as a result of the economic boost. In this sense, AIIB would contribute to expanding global investment and supporting the recovery of the world economy at large.
The data have been converted into a bar chart for better illustration. Figure 3 shows the correlation between park construction and AIIB membership status of the host country while presenting a statistical comparison in the number of AIIB member and non-member countries.
As can be seen from the figure, there is a correlation between the commencement of park construction and the host country’s entry into AIIB. 175 entries remained valid after removal of the seven parks with missing data. We then calculated the total number of host countries, in comparison with the number of AIIB member host countries. Results show that since 2014, the parks have been built in 44 countries, of which 12 are AIIB members, accounting for 27.27% of the total of that year. In 2015, parks were built in 46 countries, 26 of which joined the AIIB. This year, the number of parks increased significantly in AIIB member countries,, accounting for 56.52% of the total. In 2016, the construction further expanded to 50 countries, of which 29 joined the AIIB, accounting for 58% of the total,. In 2017, the number increased to 51 countries, of which 36 joined the AIIB, accounting for 70.59% of the total. In 2018, the number increased to 52 countries, 40 of which joined the AIIB, accounting for 76.92% of the total. With the development of the AIIB, the number of host countries of the industrial parks was also increasing year by year, indicating a positive correlation between the two. AIIB countries have helped to build BRI industrial parks. Statistics show a year-on-year growth trend in the number of overseas industrial parks. From 2014 to 2018, the numbers of parks were 110, 127, 153, 166, and 175, respectively. This number surged after the establishment of AIIB in 2015, which indicates park construction also accelerated the pace of the host country’s entry into the AIIB. In summary, the two indicators are proved to be reciprocal to each other.
3.4 Data sample
This dataset is stored in an Excel file. It has recorded a total of 182 overseas industrial parks from 1992 to 2018, covering such information as: country where the parks are located, year when the parks are constructed, name of the parks, collaborative Chinese enterprises, nature of the enterprises, category to which the parks belong, among others. Examples of the dataset are shown in Table 1.
|No.||Country||Commencement of construction||Industrial park||Collaborative Chinese enterprise||Category|
|1||Algeria||2008||China Jiangling Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone||Jiangxi Jiangling Automobile Group Co. LTD||Heavy Industrial Park|
|2||United Arab Emirates||2016||China-Arab (Fujila) Trade and Logistics Park||Weihai Construction Group Co. LTD||Logistics Cooperation Park|
|3||United Arab Emirates||2017||China-UAE Industrial Capacity cooperation Demonstration Zone||Jiangsu Overseas Cooperative Investment Co. LTD||Comprehensive Industrial Park|
|4||United Arab Emirates||2009||Ajman China Mall||Gulf China Trading Company (Hunan Boshen Industrial Group)||Comprehensive Industrial Park|
|5||United Arab Emirates||2018||China-UAE (Dubai) Food Industrial Cluster||China Ningxia Fund Co. LTD||Light Industrial Park|
|6||Oman||2016||China-Oman (Duqm) Industrial Park (tourist zone)||Ningxia Wanfang Investment Management Co. LTD||Comprehensive Industrial Park|
|7||Oman||2016||China-Oman (Duqm) Industrial Park (light industry complex)||Ningxia China Oman Wanfang Investment Management Co. LTD||Light Industrial Park|
|8||Oman||2016||China-Oman (Duqm) Industrial Park (heavy industry area)||Ningxia China Oman Wanfang Investment Management Co. LTD||Heavy Industrial Park|
|9||Egypt||2008||Suez Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone (Egypt)||China Africa Teda Investment Co. LTD||Comprehensive Industrial Park|
|10||Egypt||2018||Mankai Textile Industrial Park||Ningxia Mankay Investment Co. LTD||Light Industrial Park|
|11||Ethiopia||2016||Adama Light Industrial Park||China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation||Light Industrial Park|
|12||Ethiopia||2015||Hawassa Industrial Park||China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation||Light Industrial Park|
|13||Ethiopia||2016||Dire Dawa Industrial Park||China Civil Engineering Construction Corporation||Light Industrial Park|
|14||Ethiopia||2007||Eastern Industrial Zone||Jiangsu Yongyuan Investment Co. LTD||Comprehensive Industrial Park|
|15||Ethiopia||2017||Ethiopia-Hunan Industrial Park||Ethiopia-Hunan Industrial Park Operation Management Company||Comprehensive Industrial Park|
4.1 Data quality control
In order to ensure the accuracy and validity of the data, we used the BRI official platforms and the enterprises’ official websites as primary sources of information. Multiple checks were performed before each piece of data was entered into the data sheet. In case of collaborative projects of joint venture, we identified the nature of its member enterprises based on their major share holders.
4.2 Data quality assessment
In order to ensure their authenticity and reliability, the data were validated against those published through official channels. Specifically, all the names and implementing enterprises of the industrial parks were checked and validated against those publicized overseas to ensure data consistency. All the data were checked for three times to ensure their accuracy. First, the data were verified with 103 entries of information about the overseas industrial parks released by China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, an organization responsible for providing cross-border investment information17. These, together with another 80 entries provided by China’s Ministry of Commerce, were verified again18. Finally, the remaining 50 entries of data that were not yet checked were verified through other available channels.
The verification process revealed some problems in the entries retrieved from published sources. These problems included mainly data duplication and one entry under different names—names of joint company, parent or subsidiary companies. After serious checks, we identified problems in five entries out of the total 103 released by the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade, including two duplicate entries, two unreported entries, and one non-existent park name. Among the remaining 98 entries, one was inconsistent with the published data①. The data consistency was then 98.98%. Of the 80 entries of data provided by the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, 78 were left after removal of two duplicate entries. Another one was inconsistent with the published material, and the data compliance was 98.72%②. Self-check data and original data consistency is up to 100%. After the evaluation, the overall data consistency increased to 99.23%.
① The China-Russia Agricultural and Animal Husbandry Industry Demonstration Park, according to its website, was under joint implementation by Heilongjiang Mudanjiang New Friendship Agricultural Economy and Technology Development Co., Ltd., but a validation against the data released by the Ministry of Commerce showed it was actually Zhongding United Animal Husbandry Co., Ltd.
② According to the Chinese Ministry of Commerce, West Kalimantan Aluminum Processing Park (Indonesia) was under joint implementation by Jiangsu Rugao Shuangma Chemical Co., Ltd., which conflicted with another source stating it was actually Hangzhou Jinjiang Group Co., Ltd.. While Jiangsu Rugao Shuangma Chemical Co., Ltd. was the actual implementing enterprise of East Kalimantan Island Agricultural, Industrial and Trade Economic Cooperation Zone (Indonesia)
Overseas industrial parks are important platforms for Chinese enterprises’ overseas investment. Statistics show that overseas industrial parks account for one third of China’s total investment overseas. With the help of web crawler, remote sensing and GIS technology, our study—as part of the major project “Big Earth Data” under the “Belt and Road Initiative” Program—compiled a comprehensive list of overseas industrial parks, each supplemented by geographic location data. This dataset consists of 182 industrial parks falling onto six categories, including agricultural parks, light industrial parks, heavy industrial parks, logistics cooperation parks, high-tech parks and comprehensive industrial parks. It records such information as the continents, regions and countries located, the development level of their host country, the name of the industrial parks, China’s implementing enterprises, the nature of these enterprises, the enterprise identification code, the type of industrial parks, the commencement of construction, among others. This dataset provides information for predicting medium- and long-term prospects during the planning of BRI parks overseas, for supporting the government departments’ decision-making, and for reducing risks during Chinese enterprises’ “Going Global”.
Thanks go to our colleagues for their contribution to data collection and for providing valuable suggestions on paper writing. They are: Tian Dinghui, Xiao Jianhua, Yin Fujie, Zhu Hongchen, Jiang Yu, Jia Zhanhai and other members of the State Key Laboratory of Remote Sensing Science, the Aerospace Information Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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1. Li HM, Wu MQ, Niu Z et al. Information dataset of China’s overseas industrial parks from 1992 to 2018. Science Data Bank, 2019. (July 4, 2019). DOI: 10.11922/sciencedb.797.
How to cite this article
Li HM, Wu MQ, Niu Z et al. Information dataset of China’s overseas industrial parks from 1992 to 2018. China Scientific Data 4 (2019). (December 11, 2019). DOI: 10.11922/csdata.2019.0028.zh.