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Abstract: Superalloy is a crucial material for the development of aerospace industries. However, due to high confidentiality imposed on superalloy data exchange abroad, acquisition of superalloy data has been relatively difficult. Domestic collection of superalloy data starts much later than and the databases are often not accessible, which to some extent restricts the development of superalloy research. Based on the International Symposium on Superalloys from 1980 to 2016, we collect the information such as materials grade and brand name, chemical composition, raw materials information, performance, processing and characterization conditions, by means of manual recording and pixel value conversion. Data quality is controlled and evaluated by an examination of data source, data auditor and data error. And the data from the same article have a unique digital object identifier (DOI). Our building of this dataset is conducive to materials data sharing, intellectual property protection, and the development of nickel base superalloys in China, and it will significantly meet the requirement of data-driven materials design.
Keywords: superalloy; superalloy dataset; International Symposium on Superalloys; data opening
|English title||A Data of Nickel-base Superalloys|
|Corresponding author||Haiqing Yin(email@example.com)|
|Data author(s)||Haiqing Yin, Bin Xu, Xue Jiang, Cong Zhang, Xuanhui Qu|
|Time range||1980 – 2016|
|Data service system||http://www.materdata.cn/search2.php?tty=875|
|Source(s) of funding||National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFB0700503)|
|Dataset/Database composition||The dataset is displayed as a web page with the files (Excel) accessible via the background downloads and bulk ones. Data from the 3 types of superalloys, that is P/M, wrought and single crystal superalloys, are included in the dataset, containing the information on the materials brand and name, chemical composition, raw material, microstructure, performance, processing details and characterization conditions.|
Superalloys, common materials for aircraft engines and automobile engines, have excellent properties, including high temperature strength, oxidation resistance and thermal corrosion resistance, fatigue properties and fracture toughness1., which can resist complicated stress environments with maintaining surface stability above 600℃. Superalloys are classified into 3 types: iron-based, nickel-base and cobalt-based superalloys. Nickle is the most widely used superalloy material because of its stable structure of FCC, no allotropic transformation from room temperature to high temperature, almost no oxidation below 500℃, strong alloying ability, and no harmful phase produced by adding more than ten elements.2.Nickel-base superalloys are widely used in aircraft engines and turbine discs for their excellent high strength, oxidation resistance and gas corrosion resistance in the range of 650 to 1000℃.3.The excellent mechanical properties of superalloys are the guarantee for the stable operation of aircraft engines and the key link to promote the development of aviation, which means the study of the mechanical properties of nickel-base superalloys is of great significance to the development of aviation.4.Since the first furnace of superalloys was successfully produced in 1956, the research, production and application of superalloys in China have gone through many years of development. In retrospect of history, superalloys in China have been developed from nothing, from imitation to self-innovation with temperature resistance improved from low to high, advanced technology applied, new materials developed, production technology improved, product quality has improved continuously, and superalloys system established and perfected, which satisfies the needs of superalloys for development of not only aviation industries in China, but also other industrial sectors.5.
However, superalloy is an important national armament resource with strong secrecy. In USA, the main companies producing superalloys are P&W, GE, Honeywell and so on, all of which make management of superalloys data strict and internal database of the company in a confidential state, with difficultly obtaining superalloy data. As for the superalloys database, there are some existing superalloys databases abroad. Firstly, it is the materials properties database of National Institute of Standards and Technology in USA, in which some key data are charged. In addition, the high temperature materials database, belonging to PETTER European Research Center in the Netherlands, makes data open and involves mechanics and thermodynamics. Meanwhile, there are two metal database making data open in Japan. One is the mechanical properties database of metal materials built by the Japan National Research Institute of Metal and the Japan Institute of Metals and Materials, and the other is the Materials Data Platform built by National Institute for Material Science. Europe, USA, Russia, Japan and other countries has attached great importance to the protection of superalloy information,and foreign superalloy databases are attached to various research institutions and have high confidentiality. In China, there are National Materials Scientific Data Sharing Network and Materials Genome Engineering Databases, but the construction of Superalloy database, overall, is relatively slow, and there are few open superalloy databases, which makes it difficult to interchange superalloys data information in China and restricts the development of superalloys to a certain extent. Therefore, it is relatively difficult for domestic researchers to use superalloy data and obtain resources.
Based on the above reasons, the establishment of superalloy database is of great significance to the future development of national aviation. And hope this dataset can broaden the access to superalloy data, strengthen the exchange of talent data in the field, realize the sharing of distributed data, promote the research level of superalloy, and promote the development of national materials genome engineering.
2.1 Data source
The data sources of this dataset include four ways: (1) the most influential conference papers in superalloys field, International Symposium on Superalloys; (2) China Superalloys Handbook6. ; (3) CALPHAD data of nickel-base superalloys in thermodynamic analysis; (4) high quality literatures published at home and abroad. Meanwhile, data collection of related literatures published at home and abroad about superalloys is still in progress, and the data volume of dataset will continue to expand.
The International Symposium on Superalloys, hailed as the "Olympic Congress" of the superalloy industry, was founded in 1968 and held every four years, which is the highest level, most influential and oldest international academic conference in the field of superalloys. Each conference was held in September and was attended by representatives of famous scientific research institutes and universities, engine manufacturing companies and superalloys production companies from all over the world.7.The research scope of papers at the International Symposium on Superalloys includes 3 types: iron-based, nickel-base and cobalt-based superalloys. The content covers processing and properties (creep, fatigue, corrosion and so on in high temperature) between casting (directional solidification, single crystal, polycrystalline) superalloys, wrought superalloys and powder superalloys, and it also includes effects of elements on microstructure and properties of Superalloys. So, A wide range of research scope provides guarantee for the superalloy development and application of data. At present, this dataset contains the data of the papers of the International Symposium on Superalloys from 1980 to 2016. And China Superalloys Handbook is the authoritative handbook of superalloys experiments and superalloys data in China, in which experimental data of superalloys are reliable. CALPHAD is based on thermodynamic calculation and calculates the phase composition of superalloys by adding elements to achieve the purpose of increasing the content of strengthening phase and reducing the content of harmful phase, which is an effective method to design superalloys. The international well-known academic journals of structural materials, such as Acta Materialia, contain a large number of academic literatures on superalloys with a large number of high quality and practical application of superalloy data, which can further expand the research of superalloy. This dataset collected and collated the experimental data and computational data of nickel-base superalloys to form the superalloys dataset with taking the superalloys handbook, CALPHAD and high-quality literatures as data collection objects.
2.2 Data content specification
The data content of nickel-base superalloys was determined to obtain the superalloys dataset, which is showed in Table 1, according to Establishment and application of uniform description specification for materials scientific data8. which clarifies the specifications for the establishment and description of materials scientific data and uniform description specification for materials scientific data9. which determines uniform format requirements for material science data collection, collation and submission. The data of nickel-base superalloys are divided into 8 modules: general information, materials grade, materials name, chemical composition, raw materials, property, experimental conditions, data productors and inspectors. Each module has its own submodule to specify the description of data, extract the available information in the literatures comprehensively, and ensure the integrity of data. Then, the available data can be searched and recorded in literatures by the content of nickel-base superalloy data template.
|general information||created time, abstract, keywords, DOI, author, upload method, template name|
|materials grade||materials grade|
|materials name||materials name|
|chemical composition||composition, proportion|
|raw materials||name, raw materials property, value, unit, production method, manufacturer, remark|
|property||category, name, value, unit, testing equipment and model number, testing institute, property-related figure, property-related accessory|
|experimental conditions||condition name, parameter name, value, unit|
|data productors and inspectors||data productor, data inspector, remark|
2.3 Data collection range
The data in this dataset is mainly collected according to the superalloy practical application requirements that mechanical properties meet the actual requirements of aeroengine. Therefore, the data collection range about properties includes mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, creep rupture strength, creep strength and so on) and microstructure characteristics that affect mechanical properties (lattice misfit, phase content, and so on). Guided by practical application, the properties involved in China Superalloys Handbook are chief aim to further promote the development of data collection of superalloys.
2.4 Data collection and processing
The data in this paper are classified into 3 types: digital data, text data, and figure data. Different types have different content, location, and collection methods. Table 2 lists data content, location and collection methods for data of 3 types.
|digital data||chemical composition||Experiment||read and extract|
|raw materials information||Experiment|
|text data||materials grade||Introduction||read and extract|
|figure data||Properties||Results||scatter figure: translating pixel points to numeral|
|fitting data figure: no dealing|
3.1 Data sample
As to 8 modules in nickel-base superalloys template, materials grade, materials name, chemical composition, property, and experiment conditions are required to ensure data integrity.
The general information includes production time, abstract, keywords, DOI, author, upload method, template name to show basic information of data, as shown in figure 1.
The terms of ‘materials grade’ and ‘materials name’ are common appellations of superalloys, as shown in figure 2.
The ‘chemical composition’ is to record all the additive elements of the superalloys, and each chemical composition corresponds to its mass fraction or atomic fraction, as shown in figure 3.
The ‘raw materials information’ shows the characteristics of the raw materials, including some properties and production process. But generally speaking, there are not many records in the literatures, as shown in figure 4.
The ‘property’ includes information of category, name, value and unit of properties. The property is classified into totally 13 groups, including the physical, chemical, mechanical, thermal, electronical, magnetic, optical, fundamental, electrochemical, biology, environment, processing, engineering. In addition, the property-related figure and property-related accessory is to further explain characteristics of microstructure and property, as shown in figure 5.
The ‘experiment conditions’ includes all the experiment steps described in literatures, including the preparation and the testing parameters, to record the whole process data, as shown in figure 6.
The ‘data productors and inspectors’ requires to submit simple information of data productors and inspectors, and requires inspectors to have a high-level superalloys knowledge to ensure the rationality of the data, as shown in figure 7.
The ‘remarks’ is supplement for data information, such as source approach, which is in the light of GB/T7714, as shown in figure 8.
3.2 Data storage
This dataset is displayed in the form of web pages and stored in the server, which responds to the requirements of big data and lays the foundation for subsequent data supplement. The data storage form uses cloud database, gets rid of the traditional standalone mode Excel table storage form and displays data in the form of web pages to facilitate data sharing. Meanwhile, in the process of data usage, it can convert cloud data into Excel form, which is convenient for researchers to use data.
In the future, a software will be built in when the dataset has a large amount data to achieve more reasonable and convenient data usage and promote the research and development of national superalloys.
The DOI, Digital Object Identifier, is established by The Association of America Publishers, and is operated by International DOI Foundation10.. Encoding of materials scientific data DOI is ‘DOI:10.institution/classification.project.date.type.sequence’. There is an example for DOI, as shown in figure 9. In order to promote the protection of data intellectual property rights, this dataset establishes the DOI of materials data to make data which are from the same literature have same and unique DOI identification.
This dataset makes quality control and assessment from 3 aspects: data source, data error rate, and data inspectors.
Materials scientific data can be classified into three types: completely reliable data, generally reliable data and data to be verified. The completely reliable data refer to data from published handbook, standards, books and so on. The generally reliable data refer to data from published literatures. The data source of this dataset is the authoritative handbook and literatures published publicly in the field of superalloys, which makes reliability of the dataset high in highest measure.
This dataset is manually collected from handbook and literatures. For data clearly given in the handbook and literatures, the digital data were collected completely with same as data in handbook and literatures. For scatter data given in the figure, 300 data were randomly selected and replotted to choose data with the error rate less than 3%, by using manual selection control verification.
In order to ensure data quality, data inspectors must be a well-known scholar in the field of superalloys or a person with sufficient knowledge to ensure data correctness. For this dataset, the data inspectors were teachers who have sufficient knowledge about superalloys. Because of reliable data source, the main task for data inspectors was controlling conversion error or operation error in data processing. In addition, fraction data were deleted manually in data inspecting owing to inconformity with the conventional knowledge of superalloys.
High degree of data confidentiality in foreign superalloy databases hinders the domestic researchers to use data. This superalloys dataset opens to the public to break through the barrier of data exchange, to make data available to the researchers and designers, and maximize the data value of superalloys.
This dataset covers the whole process information for one property of superalloy, which enables data users to clearly understand the changes in each step of the material. Data volume is about 13,000 items of data, which provides data basis for big data analysis. Mathematical analysis by using neural network, support vector machine, regression analysis and multiple linear regression can lay a solid data foundation for the study of superalloys by data mining method. Meanwhile, it is helpful to promote the development of materials genome engineering in China by using big data technology to research, which is based on the idea of materials genome engineering.
And the issue of intellectual property protection of materials data is solved in this work by using DOI for each datum and this data set, which defines the source of data and makes DOI a significant approach to promote data sharing.
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Yin H, Xu B, Jiang X, Zhang C, Zhang R, Liu G & Qu X. A Data of Nickel-base Superalloys. Science Data Bank, DOI: 10.11961/mater0203.MGI.20171221.db.0055(2019)
How to cite this article
Yin H, Xu B, Jiang X, Zhang C, Zhang R, Liu G & Qu X. A Data of Nickel-base Superalloys. China Scientific Data 4(2019). DOI: 10.11922/csdata.2018.0060.zh