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Abstract: Dongfang City is an important port located in the western part of Hainan Province and has abundant geological tourism resources. According to the National Standard "Geological Heritage Survey Specification" (DZ/T 0303-2017), this study investigated 11 geological tourist spots in Dongfang City. Field investigations were carried out to collect multiple sources of data, such as remote sensing, geological and geographical data. Eventually, the data set of geological tourism resources of Dongfang City was constructed. The results show that there are three types of geomorphic landscapes and 5 sub-carbonate topography, including geotechnical geomorphology, tectonic geomorphology and water geomorphology. It reveals the locations of Dongfang geological tourism resources, and provides a scientific data support for the design, planning and execution of the Geoparks development project in Dongfang City. In fact, it provides a fresh new insight for the future development of geological tourism-based economy in Hainan province.
Keywords: Dongfang City, geological tourism resources, geomorphic landscape.
Geotourism is tourism surrounding geological attractions and destinations which enables people to understand geology, geography and a series of geological relics, such as geological features and landscapes. With the rapid development of economy, the need for travel is expanding. Existing literature summarized a considerable number of national geoparks and geological relic resources [184.108.40.206.6.7.8 ], this study aims to promote the development of geological tourism of Dongfang City, Hainan province [9.10.11 ].
Dongfang City is in the west of Hainan, 210 kilometers away from Haikou and 160 kilometers away from Sanya. The latitudes of Dongfang City are from 1843’08’’N to 1918’43’’N and the longitudes are from 10836’46’’E to 10907’19’’E. It lies between Ledong County and Changjiang County and plays an important role in sustaining the tourism resources of geological forms. However, few studies were focused on these geological tourism resources. Therefore, this study aims in exploring the geological resources and making ecological assessment of the tourism sites in Dongfang City using multivariate data, remote sensing and GIS systems along with field experiments The study area is focused on 11 geological tourism spots in Dongfang City in accordance to the “Geological Heritage Survey Specification” (DZ/T 0303-2017) .
2.1 Data Collection
12 GF-2 remote sensing images ranging from 2017 to 2018 were collected from the China Satellite Application Center (http://cresda.com). Both geological maps and zoning maps were purchased from the National Geological Archive.
Dongfang City is located in the western part of Hainan Island uplift and the southern part of Shilu syncline. It runs through the Changjiang-Qionghai and Jianfengling-Diaoluoshan faults in the southeastern direction of the island. They have experienced tectonic movements such as Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian and Himalayan. Strata include Ordovician, Silurian, Permian, Cretaceous, Quaternary and intrusive rock bodies. Ordovician strata are mainly developed in Nanbigou group with main lithological types of metamorphic phyllite, slate and basic volcanic rocks. They are mainly distributed near the Mao'an Reservoir, which is in the central part of the studied area and Chong e miao is in the eastern part of the study area. Silurian, mainly developed in the strata of Kungliecun group and Tuoli group, with main lithological types of metamorphic quartzite, slate, sedimentary limestone, are located in the eastern part of the study area near Donghe and Daguangba Reservoirs. Permian strata, mainly developed in the Ocha group and Nanlong group, with the main lithological types of sedimentary mudstone, sandstone and limestone, are located in the eastern part of the study area near Tian'an and Jiangbian town. Most Cretaceous strata, with sedimentary mudstone and sandstone, are developed in Lumuwan group and Baowan group, and a few are distributed near the Tianhui Reservoir in the northern part of the study area. The Quaternary strata are mainly composed of Basuo group, Beihai group, Yandun group and Holocene. Their lithological types are mainly composed of sedimentary mudstone, sandstone and beach rocks, which are mainly distributed in the western coast and Eastern Daguangba reservoir. The intrusive rocks are mainly granite, which are widely distributed in the middle of the study area, such as Baoping, Datian, Guangba county and Heimei, etc.
2.2 Progress of the data production
The process of this data set mainly includes band fusion and information extraction, geographical registration, artificial interpretation, field verification, classification of relevant geological tourism resources, and production of relevant images. They ultimately form the data set of geological tourism resources in Dongfang City(figure 1). Detailed description is as follows:
(1) Image fusion. Extracting the downloaded remote sensing images in batches and using the ENVI v5.1 software to fuse panchromatic and multi-spectral images.
(2) Geographic registration and extraction of remote sensing image. Due to the large number of high-score images and some migration, this data set uses the geological map of Hainan Province as the basemap to correct the remote sensing images. ArcGIS v10.2 software is used to geo-rectified the images to meet the needs of subsequent processing.
(3) Artificial interpretation. Artificial interpretation on the remote sensing images was carried out based on the GF-2 satellite images, Hainan county distribution maps and Hainan geological maps. Features extracted from the image include roads, rivers, reservoirs and geological tourisms.
(4) Field verification. There will be some deviation in artificial interpretation, and the corresponding location of geological tourism resources cannot be completely determined. Therefore, it is necessary to verify the corresponding data in the field, using the GPS to obtain accurate positions.
(5) Classification of the geological tourism resources. Classification and summary of the geological tourism resources are carried out according to the national standard "Geological Heritage Survey Standard" (DZ/T 0303-2017) .
(6) Producing images. The extracted feature information, field verification data and the geological tourism resources that have been classified and summarized are integrated to form the geological tourism resources data set of Dongfang City.
The data set of geological tourism resources of Dongfang City is mainly divided into two parts. One is the graphic sample, including the background images (maps) of the research area and the survey maps of the geological tourism resources, the other is the table sample containing the classification table of geological tourism resources of Dongfang City.
3.1 Graphic sample
As shown in figure 2, the background map of the study area is made synthetically by extracting information from the remote sensing images, which includes roads, rivers, reservoirs, villages, oceans and geological tourism resources.
As shown in figure 3, the geological tourism resources map is mainly composed of roads, railways, reservoirs, rivers and the detailed geological tourism resources.
3.2 Table sample
According to the national standard “Geological Heritage Survey Specification” (DZ/T 0303-2017) , the geological tourism unit in the study area was investigated. The results show that the geological tourism resources of Dongfang City are abundant, including 11 geological tourism monomers such as Exian Ling, which has developed geological relics of geomorphic landscape. Classification and characteristics of their geological tourism resource types are shown in table 1.
|Main class||class||sub-class||Tourist monomer||characteristic|
|Landscape Main class|
|Geotechnical landform||Carbonate geomorphology(Karst landform)||Exian Ling||Karst landform|
|Mihou cave||Lithology purity(Limestone),|
|Exian cave||Complex and diverse lithology,|
|Shitian cave||Black and white limestone,|
Stone terrace, Compound cave
|Tectonic landform||klippe||Yulinzhou||Important Navigation Aids in Beibu Gulf, Hillstones resemble fish scales, Rare Limestone Coast in Hainan, structural section|
|Rivers(Landscape belt)||Changhua River||The confluence of river water and sea water at the estuary|
|Lakes and pools||Daguangba Reservoir||Dongfang little Guilin, The First Earth Dam in Asia, Earliest Hydropower Station Sites in China, Sites of Japanese Invasion into China|
|Gaopoling Reservoir||Fishing, There are hot springs around|
|Spring||Hongxing hot spring||Natural gushing, water temperature is high|
In order to reduce the influence of cloud on remote sensing image information extraction, 12 images were selected from all the images covering Dongfang City of Hainan Province ranging from 2017 to 2018. The geological map and the traffic map are verified by field points to minimize the errors.
As to image migration, geometric registration is carried out based on field verification.
There are certain errors occurred in the artificial interpretation, such as the level of zoom in/ out of the image and the standard deviation in the calibration of an object. These can be optimized by field verification.
Systematically, this data set classified and summarized the types, locations and surrounding conditions of geological tourism resources in Dongfang City along with multiple data sources. It has significant practical value and provides theoretical guidance and corresponding data support for the development, utilization and planning design of geological tourism resources in Dongfang City. It has laid a solid foundation for the establishment of geological parks, and promoted the development of tourism industry by creating a more promising geological tourism brand of Dongfang City.
The Dongfang Tourism Development Committee has supported this data set during the field verification. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to them.
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How to cite this article
Li Zh, Wang Q, Chen Y & Zhou H. A Dataset of Geological Tourism Resources in Dongfang City, Hainan. China Scientific Data 4(2018). DOI: 10.11922/csdata.2018.0079.zh