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Abstract: Atmospheric deposition is commonly considered the most effective approach to removing pollutants from the atmosphere. It is also one of the main sources of nutrient and heavy metal input into natural terrestrial ecosystems. A systematic network for atmospheric wet deposition observation helps quantify the deposition flux and explore the spatial-temporal pattern and influencing factors of wet deposition, which is expected to provide background references for ecological assessment. Long-term in situ observation is one of the three basic tasks of the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN). In 2013, China Wet Deposition Observation Network (ChinaWD) was established based on CERN. ChinaWD has 54 observation sites now, whose scope covers all the major ecosystem types in China. It focuses on China’s natural and agricultural ecosystems and has adopted a systematic observation index system, including nitrogen, phosphorus, acid, base cation and heavy metal deposition. This dataset contains information on wet nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and acid deposition from 41 ChinaWD sites across China in 2013, and is helpful for the implementation of nutrient addition experiments and model simulation.
Keywords: wet deposition; nitrogen; phosphorus; acid; terrestrial ecosystems; network; ChinaWD
|Title||Atmospheric nitrogen, phosphorus, and acid deposition in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems (2013)|
|Corresponding author||He Nianpeng (email@example.com) ,|
Wang Qiufeng (firstname.lastname@example.org)
|Data authors||Zhu Jianxing, Wang Qiufeng, Yu Haili, Zhang Qiongyu, He Nianpeng|
|Geographical scope||41 observation sites including: Aksu (AKA), Ailao Mountains (ALF), Ansai (ASA), Beijing (BJU), Inner Mongolia Grassland (NMG), Changshu (CSA), GreaterKhingan (DAF), Dangxiong (DXA), Dinghu Mountain (DHF), Dongling Mountain (BJF), Dongting Lake (DTM), Duolun (DLG), Erdos (ERF), Fengqiu (FQA), Fukang (FKD), Gongga Mountain 1600 m (GGF1), Gongga Mountain 3000 m (GGF2), Haibei (HBG), Hailun (HLA), Heshan (HSF), Huzhong (HZF), Huanjiang (HJK), Huitong 1(HTF1), Huitong 2 (HTF2), Lhasa (LSA), Linze (LZA), Luancheng (LCA), Miaoxian (MXF), Naiman County (NMD), Qianyanzhou (QYA), Sanjiang (SJM), Shapotou (SPD), Shennongjia (SNF), Shenyang (SYA), Taoyuan (TYA), Xishuanbanna (BNF), Yanting (YGA), Yingtan (YTA), Yucheng (YCA), Changbai Mountains (CBF), and Changwu (CWA).|
|Data volume||20 KB||Data format||*.xlsx|
|Data service system||<http://www.cnern.org.cn/data/meta?id=40576>;|
|Sources of funding||National Natural Science Foundation of China (31872690), National Key Research and Development Program of China (2016YFA0600104), Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA19020302), Science and Technology Service Network Initiative of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (KFJ-SW-STS-169), and the National Postdoctoral Program for Innovative Talents (BX20180300).|
|Dataset composition||This dataset includes: 1) site information, such as site name, abbreviation, and geographical coordinates; 2) pH value and deposition fluxes of nitrogen (ammonium, nitrate, total dissolved nitrogen, and total nitrogen), phosphorus, and sulfate.|
Atmospheric wet deposition, in the forms of precipitation or snow, is considered the most effective approach to removing pollutants from the atmosphere.1 The components of atmospheric wet deposition, such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfate, heavy metal, and volatile organic compound (VOC), vary which depend on the source of emission and the intensity of human activities in a specific area.2-3 In recent decades, atmospheric wet deposition aroused concerns not only because it became an important source of bioavailable nutrient (e.g., N and P) input to natural ecosystems, but also an input of toxic heavy metal and acid deposition which deteriorated environment pollution.
Previous researches on atmospheric precipitation chemistry largely focused on urban site, while natural ecosystems in suburban or remote areas received less attention. For example, in 1992, the National Acid Deposition Monitoring Network of China was built to monitor and control acid rain (observation parameters include pH and conductivity). Later on, an N Pollution Monitoring Network was established to observe nitric oxides (NOX) and N dioxide (NO2) in city. Most of these monitoring sites were located in China’s eastern developed areas, and much fewer in the western remote areas.4 Meanwhile, relatively singular monitoring parameters were employed.5 However, as our economy and technology develop, the environmental problems we face also evolve. In these circumstances, the relatively singular monitoring parameters cannot reflect the actual status of environment, and a systematic, comprehensive observation system is in need. Therefore, it is vital to build a systematic network for atmospheric wet deposition observation, which covers urban, natural and agricultural ecosystems.
In 2013, based on stations from the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN)6, we constructed a China Wet Deposition Observation Network (ChinaWD). ChinaWD network can monitor atmospheric N, P, sulfate, base cations, and heavy metal depositionsynchronously,2-3, 7-9and monitoring of VOCs and precipitation isotope can be expected in near future. By the end of 2018, ChinaWD network had run stably for 6 years and there were 54 stations in the network (from 41 stations in 2013 to 54 stations in 2018).The sites cover all major terrestrial ecosystems in China, including forest, grassland, desert, lake, marsh and karst ecosystems, and encompass eight ecological regions according to climate and vegetation types (Figure1). This study mainly introduced the performance, metrics, and data services of ChinaWD network., and included information on wet nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and acid deposition from 41 sites across China in 2013.
2.1 Sample collection and analysis
ChinaWD has a standardized index system and processing schedule for sample collection and analysis (Figure 2). Precipitation samples are collected at each station and are then delivered to the Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research for further analysis.
Specifically, precipitation is collected into plastic buckets installed at a height of 1.5 m aboveground at the onset of rain (or snow). The precipitation samples are manually collected 3–5 times per month throughout the duration of the rainfall, which include soluble and insoluble particulates. An equal volume of the samples per collection are then mixed at the end of each month. After each rainfall event, the samples are stored in polyethylene plastic bottles at –20 °C, before two bottles of each month’s sample are sent to the institute (A for analysis and B for backup). All plastic buckets and polyethylene plastic bottles have been cleaned with distilled water three times and dried prior to use.
Before laboratory analysis, each sample is divided in two parts in the laboratory. One part is firstly used for measuring pH, conductivity and suspended particulate matter by a pH meter (Ultrameter-2 pH meter，Myron L. Company，Carlsbad，CA，USA), and is then digested using the alkaline potassium persulfate digestion method and the ammonium molybdate spectrophotometric method, in order to measure total N (TN)and total P (TP) of mixed rainfall in the continuous flow analyzer (FUTURA, Alliance Instruments, France). The other part is firstly filtered by gravity through a 0.45 μm membrane filter to remove insoluble particulates, and then the concentrations of total dissolved N, NH4+ –N, and NO3– –N are measured using the same continuous flow analyzer. We also measure dissolved P, base cations and heavy metal concentration using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP–OES) (Optima 5300DV, PerkinElmer, America).
2.2 Data calculation
The fluxes of wet deposition are calculated as follows:
where D (kg ha–1)is the wet deposition flux of a specific component (such as N, P or sulfate) per year, which is the sum of monthly wet deposition flux (kg ha–1); Ci is the monthly concentration of this component in rainfall (mg L–1); Pi is the monthly precipitation (mm); and 100 is the unit conversion factor.
This dataset includes site name, abbreviation, and wet deposition fluxes. Data parameters and attributes are shown in Table 1.
|No.||Parameters||Data type||Required or not||Unit||Description|
|1||Name||Character||Yes||–||Site name, such as Aksu|
|2||Abbreviation||Character||Yes||–||Made up of 3 letters. The last represents ecosystem type, A: agriculture; F: forest; G: grassland; D: desert; M: moisture. For example, AKA represents Aksu agricultural sites.|
|3||Year||Integer||Yes||–||Year of observation|
|4||Longitude||Integer||Yes||–||Longitude of the site|
|5||Latitude||Integer||Yes||–||Latitude of the site|
|7||NH4+ –N||Float||No||kg N ha–1yr–1||Wet deposition flux of ammonium|
|8||NO3– –N||Float||No||kg N ha–1yr–1||Wet deposition flux of nitrate|
|9||DTN||Float||No||kg N ha–1yr–1||Wet deposition flux of dissolved N|
|10||TN||Float||No||kg N ha–1yr–1||Wet deposition flux of total N|
|11||DTP||Float||No||kg P ha–1yr–1||Wet deposition flux of dissolved P|
|12||DTS||Float||No||kg S ha–1yr–1||Wet deposition flux of sulfate|
ChinaWD network uses rigorous quality control standards for sample collection, indoor analysis, and data processing. Specifically, sample collection is conducted by experienced monitoring staff at respective ecological stations. A unique sample number is assigned according to a uniform encoding system. After sampling, precipitation sample is frozen timely to preserve the quality of the samples and prevent their degradation. The analysis methods and instruments we used are those widely adopted by other observation networks, such as Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (EMEP), and Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET).
During data processing and calculation, outliers, that is, data value larger or smaller than mean ± 3 SD, are removed according to the PauTa criterion. When a sample is lacked for a specific month and the precipitation of the month at this site is larger than 5 mm, the annual average value of this site is used for interpolation.
ChinaWD network has systematic index systems which incorporate indicators for atmospheric N, P, acid, base cation, heavy metal, among others. The monitoring data of ChinaWD network can help fill up the gaps in the wet deposition monitoring of Chinese terrestrial ecosystems. We hope the network’s continuous observation can serve as background references for building natural ecosystem, and provide data support for relevant government bodies, organizations and workers dedicated to promoting China's ecological quality and health.
This dataset is shared by the Synthesis Research Center of CERN. Users can browse and download this dataset on either CERN website (http://www.cnern.org.cn) or Science Data Bank (http://www.sciencedb.cn/dataSet/handle/638). Research methods and conclusions for this dataset are provided in References 2–6. Further requests concerning data sharing can be directed to Nianpeng He (email@example.com).
We are grateful to the Chinese Ecosystem Research Network (CERN) for their supports for the ChinaWD network building, and the ecological stations and monitoring staff for data collection and distribution.
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Zhu J, Wang Q, Yu H et al. Heavy metal deposition through rainfall in Chinese natural terrestrial ecosystems: Evidences from national-scale network monitoring. Chemosphere 164 (2016): 128-133.
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Fu B, Li S, Yu X et al. Chinese ecosystem research network: Progress and perspectives. Ecological Complexity 7 (2010): 225-233.
Zhu J, Wang Q, He N et al. Imbalanced atmospheric nitrogen and phosphorus depositions in China: Implications for nutrient limitation. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences 121 (2016): 1605-1616.
Yu H, He N, Wang Q et al. Wet acid deposition in Chinese natural and agricultural ecosystems: Evidence from national-scale monitoring. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 121 (2016): 10995-11005.
1. Zhu J, Wang Q, Yu H et al. Atmospheric nitrogen, phosphorus, and acid deposition in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems (2013). Science Data Bank. DOI: 10.11922/sciencedb.638 (2018).
How to cite this article
Zhu J, Wang Q, Yu H et al. Atmospheric nitrogen, phosphorus, and acid deposition in Chinese terrestrial ecosystems (2013). China Scientific Data 4(2019). DOI: 10.11922/csdata.2018.0030.zh